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Global Olive Leaf Project

The International Society of Arboriculture (ISA) has announced a program whose goal is to plant a "wreath" of trees around the planet to honor the Olympic homecoming to Greece in 2004, along with global environmental stewardship. To help communicate the Olympic spirit to the world while promoting sport and environmental responsibility, Olympians have joined schoolchildren from 50 countries in tree planting projects. The plantings are scheduled to continue until the Olympic games begin in Athens on August 13th 2004. Included in this goal is having a tree planting in every city along the route of the Olympic torch, and the ISA is encouraging members and others to participate in their local plantings. Jim Skiera, executive director of ISA encourages members to provide support by coordinating events in their areas. These coordinators will work with local committees to identify proper trees for the site and assist in acquiring the trees, planting and proper maintenance.

For more information contact

New Jersey Redeveloping Older Communities

Downtown Perth Amboy

Mayor Dan Reiman has an aggressive $1-billion waterfront plan to revitalize Arthur Kill, and more redevelopments are afoot in New Jersey. A highly successful project in Perth Amboy to build 300 townhouses and multi-family units couldn't have happened without the support of Mayor Joe Vas. Fifty million dollars is being invested in Carteret to replace cracked pavement and overgrown parking lots with beautiful new streetscapes featuring antique lighting, benches and pavers. The reason for all this activity is that New Jersey has a great number of transit friendly towns just begging for redevelopment. Situated on commuter lines into New York City, these older neighborhoods have a real advantage, and a great untapped potential for development. Towns such as Bayonne, Ridgefield Park and Perth Amboy may have fallen on hard times, however state lawmakers are hammering out more smart growth initiatives that support such plans for other blue collar neighborhoods.

For more information contact Jason Kaplan at

IAAPA Asian Expo Opens

IAAP Asian dignitaries at the Expo opening.

The International Association of Amusement Parks and Attractions (IAAPA) opened at the Suntec Singapore International Convention and Exhibition Center with much fanfare, featuring a Lion Dance performance. Mr. Frank Lavin, U.S. Ambassador to Singapore, and Mr. Vivian Balakrishnan, Singapore minister of trade and industry, were among the distinguished guests at the ceremony.

Approximately 150 exhibitors from around the world showcased their products for theme parks, aquaria, waterparks, family entertainment centers, zoos and other venues. Among the attractions sampled by the 3,000 attendees were hot new thrill rides, jaw-dropping hi-tech attractions, and plenty of food, fun and games.

Seminars topics included cultural and global etiquette, intellectual property, legal matters, joint ventures and the current state of affairs concerning industry investment in China.

IAAPA is the largest international trade association for permanently situated amusement facilities worldwide. It represents 5,000 facility, supplier and individual members from more than 85 countries, and seeks to improve efficiency, marketing, safety and profitability for the industry.

Steel Prices Soaring Out of Control

Double-digit increases in steel prices are alarming many. According to Ken Simonson, AGC's chief economist, the cost of steel for one bridge project has increased by $15 million since the signing of the contract. Simonson fears this will heavily impact construction companies and may cause bankruptcies and unemployment.

The price increase is said to be the result of heavy purchasing of scrap and raw steel by the Chinese, and the growing demand in other industrialized nations.

Billboard Advertiser to Pay City–but Keep Many of Its "Illegal" Billboards Up

Someone has defaced this Clear Channel billboard. The company will take down about half of its billboards in Miami.

While Alaska, Hawaii, Maine and Vermont have banned billboards outright, billboards remain a contentious legal issue in many states. Take Florida, for instance, and Miami, in particular. The city bars outdoor ads from main streets, but Miami failed to enforce or ignored billboard laws in the 1990s, which resulted in hundreds of billboards going up. Recent efforts to rid the city of these strongly visual violations have been held up in the courts.

However, there is a proposed settlement between the city and one of the main culprits-- Clear Channel, which the city is expected to accept. Clear Channel will pay the city $1.3 million (for legal and miscellaneous fees) and $250,000 for 25 years. The advertiser will also remove hundreds of billboards. Back on track, right? Hardly. Clear Channel will only get rid of about half of its billboards, starting with the smaller ones (the less profitable).

A similar deal was made last year with Carter Outdoor Advertising.

Some people think Miami wins with such deals, like Clear Channel Outdoor and Miami's city manager. Others, though, think the city is selling out and only getting rid of the "baby billboards," while allowing large, free-standing ones to remain and be upgraded.

Professor's Celtic Garden Selected for England's Westonbirt Festival

A limestone path spirals across a blanket of ground cover to connect the open meadow and old forest of Mira Engler’s “Otherworld Garden,” one of 13 selected for the Westonbirt Festival of the Garden in England.

The "Otherworld Garden" of Mira Engler, associate professor of landscape architecture at Iowa State University, has earned her inclusion in the Westonbirt Festival of The Garden this summer in England, one of only 13 gardens selected, and the only nominee from the U.S.Engler's garden is inspired by Celtic culture and will compete against more than 200 garden designs.

An estimated 130,000 people will visit the festival, June 4-Sept. 12, at the National Arboretum, Gloucestershire. Gloucestershire is located in the history-rich Cotswold region of southwest England.

The designers received $24,000 for plants, materials and labor for their gardens, which they installed in May.

"Landscape architecture isn't only about making pretty places. It's also about making meaningful places," Engler said.

Her 6,000-square-foot Otherworld Garden seeks to reveal the spiritual connections with nature.

The gradenstraddles an open meadow and an old forest.

A raised limestone path spirals across a blanket of purple, salmon pink and blue groundcover, leading visitors from the lightness of the field to the darker woods.

A stone near the spiral bears an inscription from the "Battle of the Trees," a poem by the 6th century poet, Taliesin. "It describes trees coming to life, becoming warriors," Engler explained. "Many people here are familiar with the mythology and ideas of pagan religion, which has an emotional connection to nature."

To view more images of the garden, go to the Iowa State University website:

Study Finds Portland, Oregon's Growth Containment Strategies Working

Portland is "winning the war on urban sprawl," says university study.

WASHINGTON, D.C.– A new study appearing in the Journal of the American Planning Association (JAPA) Spring 2004 issue finds that growth management strategies used in Portland, Oregon, to control urban sprawl are working.

The study's authors, Gerrit-Jan Knaap from the University of Maryland and Yan Song from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, conclude that "Portland is winning the war on urban sprawl at the neighborhood scale."

"This is a lesson to other states and cities that thoughtful planning approaches carried out over time can change development patterns for the better," said Dr. Knaap, executive director of the National Center for Smart Growth Research and Education at the University of Maryland.

Knaap and Song's study compared specific measurements of urban form in two Portland-area neighborhoods located in Washington County. One was Orenco Station, a "new urbanist" neighborhood near a computer plant and light rail line. Forest Glen, a neighborhood in southern Beaverton, was selected because of its composite measurements of urban form that are typical of older neighborhoods in the study area.

Portland has been recognized nationally for its innovative and cutting-edge planning efforts. For example, the Hollywood District and Sandy Boulevard area in northeast Portland received the American Planning Association's (APA) 2001 Current Topic National Planning award.

The Hollywood and Sandy plan used innovative strategies and techniques to increase development potential for residential, commercial, and mixed uses while also enhancing livability, improving pedestrian safety and ensuring adequate parking.

Since passage of Oregon's comprehensive land-use planning program in 1973 and adoption of urban growth boundaries, nearly 16 million acres of farmland and open space have been protected in the state.

Earth Tech Gets Multi-faceted Airport Contract

Scheduled to open in December 2005, Toronto Pearson International Airport's Automated People Mover is part of a $4.4 billion redevelopment project currently underway. Earth Tech, a California-based consulting firm, is to provide planning, design and engineering services for this part of the project. "Our experience working with other major city airports such as O'Hare International, Kennedy International and Oakland airports will be an important asset to the Greater Toronto Airports Authority," said Alan Krusi, Earth Tech president.

The people mover will have a peak capacity of 2,150 passengers per direction per hour, and the company is providing structural, mechanical, electrical engineering, transportation engineering, architectural design and landscape architecture.

Balancing Trees and Power Lines:
A Virginia Tech Researcher Offers Solutions

A power outage in the making--winter storms cause tree branches to bend from the weight of ice, causing catastrophic contact with overhead electric utility lines.

For more than 10 years, Bonnie Appleton, an expert on issues related to tree-utility line conflicts, has been studying the benefits of better planning and planting under and around utility lines. Appleton is a professor of horticulture at Virginia Tech.

The 2003 power outages in New York, the Northeast, and damage from Hurricane Isabel, impassioned Appleton in her pursuit to enhance homeland security while promoting her horticulture research at the same time.

"We're very vulnerable when we're without electricity, and trees were the major cause of outages in both cases," Appleton said.

A major focus of Appleton's research has identified types of trees and large shrubs that are suited for planting under and near utility lines. According to Appleton, proper tree selection can improve the appearance of the landscape, prevent safety hazards, improve electric service reliability and reduce line clearance expenses for utility companies and their customers.

Because most utility-friendly trees are not readily available through most commercial nurseries, Appleton created her own nursery at the Hampton Roads Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Virginia Beach, which showcases small trees and large shrubs for use in or near utility easements.

There are about 60 varieties in Appleton's nursery, and the arboretum itself features about 125 different trees and shrubs. The main criterion for tree selection is height. Most trees with mature heights of less than 35 feet are considered utility-friendly.

Appleton is sharing the results of her research, including a detailed list of utility-friendly trees, through the Utility Line Arboretum in Virginia Beach, and a new Virginia Cooperative Extension publication titled Trees and Shrubs for Overhead Utility Easements. The publication can be found at the Virginia Cooperative Extension Web page at

Source: Virginia Cooperative Extension

APLD Presents Annual Design Awards

The Association of Professional Landscape Designers (APLD) announced the winners of the third annual Landscape Design Awards Program. Thirty-eight entries were received in the residential and commercial categories.


Under $25,000; $25,000-$75,000; and over $75,000 for install/design.


under $40,000; $40,000-$150,000; and over $150,000 for install/design.

Suzanne Arca, of Suzanne Arca Landscaping, Albany CA, won best of show in the residential division. Dan McClaren, APLD, of Impullitti Landscaping, Inc., Chagrin Falls, OH, won best of show in the commercial division. Kathy Hubner, APLD, from Gill Landscape Nursery, Corpus Christi, TX, won in three categories.

Double winners:

Joanne Kostecky, APLD, from Joanne Kostecky Garden Design, Inc, Allentown, PA. Brian Carey, from AC-BC Associates, New York, NY

Winners were judged on effectiveness of presentation; functionality of design elements; suitability of plant material; relationship to site; environmental responsibility; effective integration of plans and hardscapes; originality and creativity; design's affect on maintenance, current and future; and overall impression. All projects were required to have been installed within the past seven years.

Residential winners:

Under $25,000:
Melissa Clark, Landscape Projects, Inc., Bethesda, MD, Jules Bruck, APLD, Evolution Landscape Design, Media, PA, Kathy Hubner, APLD, Gill Landscape Nursery, Corpus Christi, TX


M. Amelia Lima, APLD, Amelia B. Lima and Associates, San Diego, CA, Joanne Kostecky, APLD, Joanne Kostecky Garden Design, Inc. Allentown, PA, Christopher Valenti, APLD, JB Landscaping, Lewes, DE

Over $75,000:

Suzanne Arca, Suzanne Arca Landscaping, Albany, CA, Randy Tumber, APLD, Tumber & Associates, LTD, Orangeville, ON, Canada, Susan Harrison, APLD, Private Gardens Design, Bellingham, WA

Commercial winners:

Under $40,000:
Sabrena Schweyer, Salsburg-Schweyer, Inc., Akron, OH, Joanne Kostecky, APLD, Joanne Kostecky Garden Design, Inc., Allentown, PA, Kathy Hubner, APLD, Gill Landscape Nursery, Corpus Christi, TX


Tom Fitzsimmons, APLD, Chux Landscaping, Inc., Pine Brook, NY, Kathy Hubner, APLD, Gill Landscape Nursery, Corpus Christi, TX

Over $150,000:

Dan McClaren APLD, Impullitti Landscaping, Inc., Chagrin Falls, OH, Brian Carey (two awards), AC-BC Associates, New York, NY

Judging the submissions were three design and horticultural professionals:
H. Edward Black, RLA, is owner, president of H. Edward Black and Associates, PC, an engineering and landscape architectural firm founded in Harrisburg in 1972. Joel Lerner, APLD, founder and CEO of Environmental Design, Capitol View Park, MD, a firm specializing in landscape consulting and design. Dr. George Whiting, an expert in herbaceous plants, plant taxonomy/plant classification, and plant breeding. For more information, visit

Chopping Down of Domain Trees Causes Conflict in Australia

Residents in Sydney, Australia have expressed displeasure over the state government's decision to cut down 11 Moreton Bay fig trees in the area's oldest public park. Officials say the trees are diseased and pose a danger to public health. According to Jayne-Maree Sedgman, a reporter, many protestors have camped out in the area, including some daring ones who have placed themselves in the trees. Some believe the trees are being removed in an effort to increase commercial use of the area. Resident Eleanor Wrobel is against the commercialization that she thinks will take place, as she believes that this area was given to the people of Sydney. The disagreement was taken to the Land and Environment Court and declared a matter for the Domain Trust, which seeks to proceed with plans to fell the trees, noted Sedgman.

James Weirick, a landscape architecture professor at the University of NSW claims that the area has historical significance that the government's decision overlooks. Weirick is concerned with the type, rather than the number of trees that will be replaced. The replacement trees will consist of figs, hoop pines and cotton palms, which are not indigenous to the area.

Look What They've Done to My Trees, Please

Residents of Brownsville, Texas are bemoaning the loss of century old palm trees, some more that 30 feet tall, near the University of Texas-Brownsville dorms. The trees, chain-sawed down by the state's department of transportation, make way for...a sidewalk.

"Just what we need, another side walk," was the attitude of some, including members of the Brownsville Beautification Committee who contend the transportation department failed to notify city officials. Others, including UTB's vice president for administration, expressed regret for the loss, but otherwise seemed to accept the felling as a necessary price to pay.

Stephen Walker, the landscape architect for the Texas DOT, said a minimum number of trees were taken out. The dorm palms have become home to Mexican green parakeets, a large parakeet darker on top with yellowish-green undersides and long, pointed tail. In the U.S. and Mexico, the species has declined because of loss of habitat to agriculture, reports the Audubon Society.

The Lurie Garden Opens in Chicago's Art Park

A rendering of Lurie Garden.

Landscape architect Kathryn Gustafson newest design is a 2.5-acre garden, which opened in Chicago's Millennium Park on July 16, 2004. Chicago's $475 million celebration of design also includes a music pavilion by Frank Gehry, a sculpture by Anish Kapoor and a Jaume Plensa interactive fountain.

Gustafson's award-winning work at the Arthur Ross Terrace at the American Museum of Natural History was highlighted in our April 2004 issue (see "Celestial Garden" at She also won the competition for the Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fountain, in London, which recently opened.

Lurie Garden is located behind a soft wall of evergreens at the south end of the music pavilion. The garden's green hedge is a collection of yew, cedar, beech and hornbeam. The frame is a monumental sculpture which curves around the garden. Through the openings lies a wide boardwalk that runs along a five-foot-wide canal along a limestone wall.

Report out on Waterfront Redevelopment, River Restoration

Washington, D.C.– Cities and developers investing millions to revitalize downtown riverfronts should help ensure success by incorporating ecological principles into their projects, according to the authors of the new report, "Ecological Riverfront Design."

Published by the American Planning Association (APA) as one of its signature Planning Advisory Service reports, "Ecological Riverfront Design" presents a comprehensive set of recommendations for integrating pollution prevention and habitat improvements into riverfront redevelopment efforts.

"It makes good business sense for communities and developers to restore the river while rehabilitating properties along the bank," said Betsy Otto with American Rivers, lead author of the report. "People spend time and money in attractive environments that emphasize natural beauty and wildlife. They avoid places where they smell sewage and see only concrete and pavement."

"Ecological Riverfront Design" is written for planners, mayors, developers, investors, government officials, river advocates, and others who are planning or evaluating redevelopment efforts. The report draws lessons from more than 30 riverfront revitalization and restoration efforts across the country.

Copies of Ecological Riverfront Design may be ordered by calling the APA's Planners Book Service (312 786-6344); by subscribing to APA's Planning Advisory Service; or through the APA web site at

Students Undertake Campus Landscape Project

Stan Jones, head of the University or Oregon landscape architecture department, says the school is one of a few in the nation giving students the opportunity to take on significant projects through a design build studio.

Landscape architecture students at the University of Oregon begin to create a European-style plaza as they tear up the intersection of East 13th Avenue and University Street. The aim of the "Heart of Campus" project is to create a more pedestrian oriented campus.

The intersection will obtain new paving bricks, a garden area next to Friendly Hall, and planters, similar to the area on 13th Avenue in front of Lillis Hall. The wooden kiosk that stood north of the intersection will be replaced by a new steel and brick version, which will also be designed by students, much like the original one.

Campus traffic will decrease as cars will no longer be able to turn from East 13th Avenue onto University Street during weekday school hours. East 13th will revert to a two-way street from University to Agate streets with a turnaround in front of the post office in the Erb Memorial Union. Cars will be able to access the intersection in the evenings and on weekends.

The landscape architecture students will work on Friendly Hall garden, the kiosk, and part of the paving bricks and concrete. Students will dig trenches, pour concrete and install irrigation lines, paving bricks and plants. The turnaround and street improvements will be handled by university and commercial crews under the direction of the Eugene landscape architecture firm of Cameron McCarthy Gilbert & Scheibe. These parts of the project will be completed before the start of classes in September.

Funds estimated at $525,000, will be provided by the sales of commemorative paving bricks and the university's street maintenance fund. So far $310,000 has been raised.

The students are incorporated a number of features that promote sustainability, including permeable paving to allow rainwater to percolate into the ground. A kiosk will also minimize rainfall by turning it into a temporary waterfall, which will wash down from the roof.

Utah Residents May Have to Start Conserving Water

SALT LAKE CITY, Utah– In a state known for its majestic mountains and skiing, Utah is now faced with a water shortage for the sixth straight year. Although the state had a good base of snow last winter, the snowpack rapidly diminished during the dry early spring and runoff wasn't enough to recharge low reservoirs.

Three future sources of water include re-used water, secondary water, and up to 20,000 acre/feet from the Colorado River as part of the Central Utah Project.

"With regards to watering regulations we have to assess each community," said Stephanie Duer, Salt Lake City's water conservation coordinator. "The city has had droughts before and we've had good success with voluntary rationing of water. Some of the adjustments made were that HOA prohibits turf requirements. The bigger picture is now in place."

Most of the ordinances have been created without turfgrass as a major landscape component, Duer told LASN. Some of the ordinances address wasting of water issues as opposed to the timing of watering lawns. The ordinances of when and how much to water has become tough to enforce. Salt Lake City sets its own rates, but they can be different for each community.

"Any rate structure can deliver a message about conservation," said Duer. "Typically, these aren't punitive measures. You can't just arbitrarily change rates because you want to but have to show just cause. It's hard to get that balance. You don't want to price people out of their homes."

During the summer peak times residents use up to six times more water than they would during winter peak usage. Duer said the goal was to reduce the summer peak demand. Depending on the municipality, fines can be levied to residents for over-watering their turf.

Through the mayor's office Salt Lake City can declare different stages of a drought. Some communities charge surcharges based on the stage of the drought, but Utah hasn't resorted to that yet.

With 85 percent of the state's water budget pinpointed to agriculture uses such as alfalfa, wheat, cattle and cherries, Duer pointed out the state has a strong block of voters in the state legislature and doesn't want to give up their water. The issue with the secondary water is that the water is high in salts and the soil is alkaline.

Salt Lake City allocates about 60 percent of its water usage to residential and the rest to industrial and commercial usage.

Salt Lake City has done a feasibility study to reclaim five million gallons per day for watering golf courses.

"The state is focused on the municipal and industrial areas, where the population lives," said Duer. "Salt Lake City has its own conservation programs with the goal to reduce residential use by 13 percent total and 20 percent during the summer. We've already achieved our long term usage goals."

CGA Plans Landscape for MTV Awards

The landscape architecture department at Calvin, Giordano & Associates has been chosen to landscape and engineer the preshow and red carpet area of the MTV Video Music Awards held this summer in downtown Miami.

CGA will provide a design based on concepts provided by MTV stage designers for the outdoor preshow. The remaining site elements will also be maintained for future use. The preshow and red carpet area are located on the waterfront, east of the American Airlines Arena in downtown Miami.

CGA is based in Fort Lauderdale and consists of experts in roadway and utility design, civil site engineering, permitting, environmental specialties, data technology, construction engineering inspection, landscape architecture, and microbial investigation. They provide engineering design work for residential/commercial developments in South Florida.

For more information, visit

Dan Benner Elected ASIC President

(From left): James Barrett, immediate past president of the American Society of Irrigation Consultants (ASIC) congratulates the new president, Dan Benner, at the 2004 ASIC National Conference in Newport Beach, Calif. Benner is president of Hydro Environmental, in Marietta, Ga.

For three decades, Daniel Benner, the new ASIC president, has designed or been involved in over 2,650 irrigation projects for numerous public and private sector interests, including golf courses, hotels and resorts, residential communities, corporate office parks and athletic fields. Benner's prominent projects include the Atlanta Athletic Club, the Augusta National Cabins, the Wilderness Lodge in Disney World, and TIAA-CREF in Charlotte, N.C. Hydro Environmental is currently working on master plans for a 2,400 acre Sandestin Resort and a 500 acre site for ARVIDA in Destin, Fla.

"I'm committed to building industry alliances and educating key publics about the importance of sound water management, the unique qualifications of ASIC professional members and the high standards for which the group is known," commented Benner.

Founded in 1970, ASIC is a nonprofit that offers a forum for peer review among the leading independent irrigation consultants.

Several new appointments were also made to the ASIC Board at the annual meeting: Dave Davis of David D. Davis & Associates, Crestline, Calif., becomes vice president; Bob Scott of Irrigation Consultant Services, Inc., Conyers, Ga., is treasurer; Jeff Bruce of Jeffrey L. Bruce & Co., Kansas City, Mo. is secretary.

New to the board are: Warren Gorowitz of Ewing Irrigation, Phoenix, Ariz.; Erik Christiansen of EC Design Group, Ltd., W. Des Moines, Iowa; and Steve Crain of The Toro Company, Carrboro, N.C.

Hastings Park looks to restore more green space

VANCOUVER, B.C.– Cancelling Playland and reducing the number of Pacific National Exhibition fair days to 10 are two options Vancouver is considering at it looks at restoring Hastings Park as a green space. The 1997 Hastings Park Restoration Plan calls for a phased greening of the 111-acre site. About one-third of the greening process has been done, with $13 million already spent on Italian gardens, a skateboard park, a basketball court, the Empire sports fields and a sanctuary garden with bio-filtration pond. The total cost of the restoration plan is $45 million.

"It could go through some possible changes and we're getting direction as we hear from the public," said Sue Harvey, project manager of Hastings Park and the PNE. "We'll set a budget for all four phases."

PNE was formed in 1907 and had its first exhibition in 1910, and currently needs restoration. For the first 50 years of its existence it was a combination race track and fair. By the 1990s the grounds were covered almost entirely in pavement.

If Playland was eliminated, options include operating temporary carnival rides during the fair. Other suggestions are to operate Playland seasonally. All these approaches slightly differ from the 1997 restoration plan which calls for streams, gardens, forest and lawns to be incorporated in the park, along with sports fields, playgrounds and skateboarding venues.

"Our city government looked at making Vancouver more green," said Harvey. "The new government decided not to do it at first."

An independent survey was taken city wide and throughout the surrounding neighborhoods about which of the four approaches people wanted. Most were in favor of restoring Playland with its annual fair of 17 days. From all the input they came up with 52 drawings of what to do with the green space. The approaches were reviewed by technical consultants, including a landscape architect, urban planner and traffic experts.

Michigan Landscape Architects Focus on Leadership

The Michigan Chapter of the American Society of Landscape Architects (MASLA) invites you to their annual conference on Friday, September 10, 2004, hosted by the downtown Radisson Hotel in Kalamazoo, Michigan, 100 West Michigan Avenue, (49007) 269-343-3333. The one-day event, titled "Leadership – Within and Without," focuses on professional and personal leadership. The registration fee is only $75, which includes all activities. For further information contact the MASLA office at 517-485-4116.

2004 American Standard for Nursery Stock Released

The 129 page Standard is available free on line.

Washington, D.C.– The American Nursery & Landscape Association (ANLA) has released its 2004 American Standard for Nursery Stock (the "Standard"). Approved by the American National Standards Institute in May 2004, the revised Standard is an essential reference for anyone in the green industry who specifies, grows, distributes, buys, or installs nursery stock. Since 1923, the Standard has established the fundamental terminology used in nursery stock transactions.

The ANLA is making this important resource available to everyone in the green industry at no charge through its website, The pdf-format document can be viewed on line, downloaded to the user's computer, or printed. A "field-friendly" version, printed on stain-resistant paper, will be available for purchase from ANLA later this year.

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December 14, 2019, 5:39 am PDT

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